"Everyone knew it was impossible. He came a fool who did not know who did it ".
LAPDC The project was designed to scientifically evaluate the possibility of the emergence of so-called " telekinetic " (or TK) the phenomena using simple protocols developed by experts from several disciplines. This is to provide some scientific answer , namely to confirm or deny the existence of the phenomenon in a specific and original experimental setting.
Carried by a responsible and open scientific inquiry , the LAPDC project therefore aims to study in detail , based on scientific methodology , the question of the possible correlation between two systems ( hardware system called ' living ' - ' about a - and hardware system called 'mobile' ) under specific conditions (see below) . Assuming that under these specific conditions, a phenomenon of subject-object correlation is observed, they are designed to test one by one each of the standard assumptions usually invoked (eg , convection, static electricity, micro- turbulence , etc. . ) To explain observation of such correlation . In the following text, the assumption of subject-object correlation in these specific conditions is called TK hypothesis ( see below ) . Specifically , the objective of LAPDC project is to provide as complete as possible experimental protocol to evaluate scientifically TK hypothesis ( see below ) , by minimizing the a priori conceptual .
II . GENESIS PROJECT , ISSUES , STRUCTURE IN TEAMS AND OBJECTIVES
1 . What Telekinesis (TK) or psychokinesis (PK) ? Etymologically (and historically ) psychokinesis is commonly understood as ' the action of thought on the matter . Within LAPDC , the choice of the term telekinesis (TK ) is preferred . Indeed , it refers to the event said hypothesis TK ' for' setting movement distance of an object relative to a change of state of a subject ( 1 ) in a specific environment , and without through conventional physical mechanisms. This corresponds to the theme of the proposed study within the LAPDC project.
2 . Roots LAPDC project structuring Sections David Jamet is responsible LAPDC project. Skeptical at first , it is the month of February 2011 , wishing to check for himself the allegations of a ' psychokinète ', he found himself for the first time confronted with this type of phenomena (2 ) .
Convinced that he would run the risk of being fooled by an illusionist , he went in search of unmask this deception in various ways. However , these early investigations did not allow him to find evidence of fraud. In considering the question , it was discovered that the ' telekinesis ' was actually a much more common practice however he could expect . Far television shows, internet videos and lounges where officiate obscure characters in search of recognition , it is hundreds of people engaged in discreetly with this strange practice . He met several and it has taken him to admit that , in a majority of cases, these people seem neither cheats nor fantasists . They seek neither fame nor profit from their practice. However, the principles for the correlation between these persons and objects remained , in his empirical observations, unidentified .
Well and extraordinary in appearance, these phenomena were they provided supernatural ? This assumption does not suit him . If objects move strangely in the presence of some people , the reason suggests that there must be a cause for this. But what are the explanatory mechanisms ? Believing in somewhat presumptuous that the subject was within the scope of his scientific skills , he then decided to make every effort to address this conundrum. He was not aware that this bet led him to the front of a true scientific adventure ...
For over two years, the LAPDC pursues the objective to design an experimental device which would examine rigorously the hypothesis TK while preserving an environment as favorable as possible to the performance of subjects.
To achieve this goal , he decided to surround himself with a multidisciplinary team organized into sections.
Scientific section ( see below ) is composed of ten people. They are all members of research organizations ( public or private) or university . And are part of a team physician, two psychologists , a doctor, three engineers , two biologists and a hypnotherapist . Occasionally, outsiders they are also asked to bring their specific expertise to the research group (electro- hydrodynamic convection, illusionism , ... ) .
The second section consists of experienced subjects ( called ' TKistes ') , getting regular basis TK effects and accepting volunteers to lend to requirements . The whole team is therefore to provide elements and means to answer a question that divided the scientific community for over a century : he is experimental conditions under which the phenomenon called ' telekinetic ' in the strict sense (3) could emerge ?
To ensure the quality of the study, LAPDC project is organized into three distinct sections:
> Section A: to establish a rigorous experimental protocol from a scientific point of view the current state of knowledge ; It consists of researchers, lecturers and experienced responsible for designing experimental protocols technicians.
> Section A ': to observe and point the finger at potential bias (see Risk cognitive dissonance , see below) ; It consists of faculty responsible for observing and / or point fingers malfunctions.
> Section B: to improve any performance issues ( called ' Tkistes ' ) relative to the defined protocol ; It consists of subjects whose presence has , on several occasions , to observe correlations in conditions where usually the presence of other subjects is not associated with any observable phenomenon of rotation. That TK hypothesis is validated or not in the conditions defined by the protocol , members of Sections A, A ' project LAPDC undertake further study with rigor. Similarly, members of the Section B undertake to try to improve their performance. Members of Sections do not wish to comply with these conditions are asked to leave the Section .
3 . Controversies around the assumption TK
The fact to consider or exclude the potential emergence of such phenomena therefore always refers to the experience of human groups , the cultural context of the society in which they operate, the body of knowledge of this company , etc. .
In order to achieve as rigorously as possible the study hypothesis TK in the current state of knowledge , sociological dimension should therefore be considered. A major reason is of order 'technical' . It concerns the implementation assumptions departures of the means used or the environmental design of the overall subject-object system that determine the experimental setting.
Data analysis , interpretation, the choice of possible changes in the experimental context dependent as well . This is one of the reasons why a particular importance is given to the risk of emergence of the phenomenon of cognitive dissonance ( see below ) in the implementation of experimental framework to study the TK hypothesis.
Hence the introduction of Section A ' attentive to these risks. Whenever necessary, the progress of LAPDC project can be presented to the public, institutions and other scientific or, as was the case recently in Robert Narholz director who is making a documentary on telekinesis film " Finding PK ".
4 . LAPDC the project : an original scientific approach to TK hypothesis
The Laboratory Abnormalities Psycho (4) and Cognitive Dissonance was founded in early 2012. This independent organization is composed of faculty , scientists and technicians from various backgrounds who are willing to share their skills and expertise to lead ( in accordance with the scientific method and ethical standards ) experiments on the assumption TK ( see definition above). " Strictly speaking, telekinesis to address scientifically, it is necessary to remove one by one all the classical assumptions known before considering the introduction of a new hypothesis . "
- On the other hand , conditions such as affectionate environment by the subject - that is to say one in which he recognized that his performance is greatest - is preserved as much as possible , provided that these n not interfere with the conditions for discernment between conventional assumptions ( imperceptible influence of the air, static electricity, ... ) .
As it was found empirically , each adding an additional constraint ( to exclude a classical physical mechanism of the list of potential vectors of the phenomenon of rotation) generally presents a new challenge for the subject. As it is recognized that a beginner should learn experimenter systematically operate under conditions imposed , it is a priori true for the subjects.
The opposite would have been surprising . Therefore , each subject is invited to pursue a personal or group training (with other matters ) whose objective is that correlations remain observable under the conditions imposed by an experimental protocol of increasing difficulty . This training aims to ensure that the subject can recognize the state ( his feelings ) that it seems , in his experience , the most favorable or unfavorable to the emergence of correlations between his feelings ( which translates to a stated intention ) and rotations observed.
All subjects systematically recognizing the impact of stress - for example - on their status to the detriment of correlations , it is proposed that their aid to improve the quality of their state (method of relaxation, self-hypnosis, ... ) .
In addition , Sections A, A ' proposed biofeedback tools to study the possible correlation between the subjects felt in these specific phases of rotations, and EEG measures to partially characterize their condition. Preliminary observations for simplified protocols suggest a correlation between their feelings in these particular phases of rotations, and the emergence of altered states of consciousness - unusual in a standard person .
Workout during which a TKiste LAPDC of trying to rotate a hemispherical mobile in jar at a given distance.
After two years of preliminary research, LAPDC designed a measuring instrument used to test rigorously and scientifically TK hypothesis. On the other hand, these two years have put together a team of individuals (Section B) agreeing to lead relatively experimental protocol imposed and methodical manner.
NOTES (1) some would say ' change of intent ' of the subject. (2) a person claims to try to rotate at a distance of 50 cm to 2 m, a lightweight mobile (see details below) . The movement is observed in correspondence with what is said , and at first sight in the absence of standard explanations ( air movement , special effects , etc. ) . (3 ) That the correlations are not attributable to conventional mechanisms (electromagnetic , mechanical turbulence phenomena , etc. ) . See below for details. (4) There is no strict definition of the anomaly psychophysical as it can be tricky to distinguish what is ' abnormal ' what is ' non-standard ' . However, for simplification the LAPDC provisionally considers that psychophysical anomaly is a manifestation of an observable but not identified with known physical mechanisms phenomenon. (5) In principle , the performance of an illusionist based on more or less complex classical physical mechanisms brought into play without the knowledge of the observer. The reader can find on youtube.com a multitude of videos explaining various special effects set in. The very purpose of the Protocol is to create conditions in which these mechanisms are no longer operating , preventing de facto illusionist act.
III . ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ; ESTIMATED IMPACT
1 . Section A: principles of experimental design and instrumentation
In this context, an isolated mobile remains motionless until it is under the influence of any force field.
Given current knowledge, the physical mechanisms that may influence the system are five in number :
1 . Mechanical (e.g., vibration phenomena )
2 . Thermal (e.g., convection )
3 . Electromagnetic (e.g., light pressure)
4 . Magnetic (e.g., phenomena of magnetization)
5 . Electrostatic (e.g., electric charges )
The experimental conditions for which the participation of one type mechanisms are deleted based on the use of specific materials ( damper ) in the mobile , and the establishment of a sealed enclosure around the mobile . Conditions to exclude the involvement of mechanisms such 3,4 and 5 in the mobile rotations are performed by using mobile plastic and inserting a Faraday cage (or system for discernment like) around the enclosure .
Of these five mechanisms that come into play in the rotation moving , preliminary studies show that convection ( mechanisms of type 2) is the one most difficult to grasp. To completely eliminate this phenomenon or quantify , two technical methods exist today :
- Place the mobile subject to a bell under high vacuum ;
- Insert into the environment of mobile smoke particles . For laser velocimetry particles , it is possible to realize the movement of air over a viewing plane with a laser beam . This technique allows to visualize the airflow and to know precisely their speed and direction. A processor coupled to a measuring device software then compares the speed of the mobile that flows within the environment to identify any consistencies / inconsistencies related to convection .
As the first method requires considerable resources , both the second remains accessible in a satisfactory scientific perspective conditions.
Laser particle velocimetry (wide shot)
Laser particle velocimetry (closeup)
The lowest experimental conditions to study rigorously the correlations between subject and object are collected through the instrument of Figure 1 below.
2 . Section A ': control experimental bias and risk of cognitive dissonance
Because some observations seem to contradict the theories and commonly accepted scientific knowledge ( in physics called 'classic' ) , part of the research activity within the LAPDC is devoted to the study of the manifestations of distortions perception and conclusions which may occur in the experimenters (Section a) and subjects (Section B) that are likely to induce observational and methodological bias : the phenomenon of cognitive dissonance.
What is cognitive dissonance ?
Cognitive dissonance is a psychological concept developed in 1957 by Leon Festinger , a professor of psychology. According to this theory , the individual in the presence of knowledge or mutually incompatible beliefs, experiences an unpleasant state of tension: it is the state of "cognitive dissonance" . Therefore, this individual will implement unconscious strategies to restore cognitive balance. These strategies are commonly called " methods of reducing cognitive dissonance ." When a person convicted of certain phenomena is exposed to facts reversing his beliefs or knowledge , the process of dissonance may appear to facilitate his management of the conflict. One strategy to reduce this state of cognitive dissonance is to strengthen its beliefs, attitudes and knowledge to address new information, or even find items reducing the importance of this new information. This is called building the initial attitude or discredit . Whatever the initial belief regarding TK , because of its character ' paranormal ', a phenomenon of dissonance is highly likely to appear in a committed observer improbable or misleading nature of TK . Similar processes are also likely to appear in the believer in the existence of the phenomenon. It is therefore of paramount importance to control certain parameters of human observation to reduce the phenomena of justification and protection of beliefs ..
As the reader can see, the process strictly follows the usual scientific method - it is not based on any non-consensual conception - while considering the hypothesis of the emergence of a phenomenon known as 'abnormal' under conditions apparently usual.